French Letters: Engaged in War

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French Letters: Engaged in War

This alumininum 'Souvenir de Steenvorde' features an engraved picture of a village with a windmill, typical of Flanders. FFNC nurses were frequently on the move. By mid-December the pair had moved to a large military hospital in Bordeaux. Then, from the end of January to June , they were posted to the small town of Bergues near the Belgian border.

At the poorly-equipped St Union, a former school converted into a hospital, they cared for victims of a typhoid epidemic.

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Not only did the nurses have to cope with a lack of basic supplies at St Union; they were also squarely in the firing line. These devastated buildings close to where they lived and worked: the six survived by sheltering in cellars. Figure 4. Daisy and Lily were soon back at work after their short respite at the beach. This was one of two hospital barges that ferried sick and wounded men to hospitals via the canals connecting the Belgian city of Nieuport to Dunkirk and Bourbourg in Flanders. At this facility, close to the Belgian border, Daisy added at least two more pieces of trench art to her collection.

Figure 3 The other was a cup — a memento of the hospital and perhaps a gift from a grateful patient.

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Perhaps it was meant for sipping something stronger than tea! Figure 5. Even before they knew the gravity of the situation, Miss Ellison — the founder of the FFNC — had granted them leave from the corps. Once they had settled into their new surroundings, Daisy briefly considered heading north to Steenworde again for a stint of six to eight weeks. There was no question that the two women would return to New Zealand only when Lily was strong enough to travel.

Having endured a European winter, they would remain in France to avoid an antipodean one. But they had left their departure too late. Lily died shortly after they left Columbo, on 21 November, about half-way through their journey. She was buried at sea, the twelfth New Zealand nurse to die in the war. A bereft Daisy continued on to New Zealand. But the loss of her close friend, with whom she had shared so many challenging and affecting war-time experiences, did not mark the end her military nursing career.

The so-called Continental System formed a league of armed neutrality to disrupt the blockade and enforce free trade with France. The British responded by capturing the Danish fleet , breaking up the league, and later secured dominance over the seas , allowing it to freely continue its strategy. Within months, Prussia declared war, triggering a War of the Fourth Coalition. This war ended disastrously for Prussia, defeated and occupied within 19 days of the beginning of the campaign. Napoleon subsequently defeated the Russian Empire at Friedland , creating powerful client states in Eastern Europe and ending the fourth coalition.

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Concurrently, the refusal of Portugal to commit to the Continental System, and Spain's failure to maintain it, led to the Peninsular War and the outbreak of the War of the Fifth Coalition. The French occupied Spain and formed a Spanish client kingdom , ending the alliance between the two. Heavy British involvement in the Iberian Peninsula soon followed, while a British effort to capture Antwerp failed. Napoleon oversaw the situation in Iberia, defeating the Spanish , and expelling the British from the Peninsula.

Austria, keen to recover territory lost during the War of the Third Coalition , invaded France's client states in Eastern Europe.

Napoleonic Wars

Napoleon defeated the fifth coalition at Wagram. Attempts to disrupt the British blockade led to the United States declaring war on Britain , while grievances over control of Poland, and Russia's withdrawal from the Continental System , led to Napoleon invading Russia in June The invasion was an unmitigated disaster for Napoleon; scorched earth tactics, desertion , French strategic failures and the onset of the Russian winter compelled Napoleon to retreat with massive losses.

Napoleon suffered further setbacks; French power in the Iberian Peninsula was broken at Battle of Vitoria the following summer, and a new coalition began the War of the Sixth Coalition. The coalition defeated Napoleon at Leipzig , precipitating his fall from power and eventual abdication on 6 April The victors exiled Napoleon to Elba and restored the Bourbon monarchy. Napoleon escaped from Elba in , gathering enough support to overthrow the monarchy of Louis XVIII , triggering a seventh, and final, coalition against him. Napoleon was decisively defeated at Waterloo , and he abdicated again on 22 June.

On 15 July, he surrendered to the British at Rochefort , and was exiled to Saint Helena , where he died in The Treaty of Paris , signed on 20 November , formally ended the war.

The Bourbon monarchy was restored once more , and the victors began the Congress of Vienna , to restore peace to the continent. As a direct result of the war, the Kingdom of Prussia rose to become a great power on the continent, [37] while Great Britain, with its unequalled Royal Navy and growing Empire became the world's dominant superpower , beginning the Pax Britannica.

The war in Iberia greatly weakened Spanish power, and the Spanish Empire began to unravel; Spain would lose nearly all of its American possessions by The Portuguese Empire began a rapid decline, with Brazil declaring independence in The wars revolutionised European warfare; the application of mass conscription and total war led to campaigns of unprecedented scale, as whole nations committed all their economic and industrial resources to a collective war effort. The outbreak of the French Revolution had been received with great alarm by the rulers of Europe's continental powers, which had been further exacerbated by the execution of Louis XVI of France , and the overthrow of the French monarchy.

Measures such as mass conscription , military reforms, and total war allowed France to defeat the coalition, despite the concurrent civil war in France. Napoleon , then a general in the French army, forced the Austrians to sign the Treaty of Campo Formio , leaving only Great Britain opposed to the fledgling French Republic. The French Republic, under the Directory , suffered from heavy levels of corruption and internal strife. The new republic also lacked funds, and no longer enjoyed the services of Lazare Carnot , the minister of war who had guided France to its victories during the early stages of the Revolution.

Pressed from all sides, the Republic suffered a string of successive defeats against revitalised enemies, supported by Britain's financial help. Bonaparte returned to France from Egypt on 23 August , his campaign there having failed. Russia had already been knocked out of the war , and, under Napoleon's leadership, the French decisively defeated the Austrians in June , crippling Austrian capabilities in Italy.

Austria was definitively defeated that December , by Moreau's forces in Bavaria. Possible dates include 9 November , when Bonaparte seized power on 18 Brumaire , the date according to the Republican Calendar then in use; [46] 18 May , when Britain and France ended the one short period of peace between and ; or 2 December , when Bonaparte crowned himself Emperor. British historians occasionally refer to the nearly continuous period of warfare from to as the Great French War, or as the final phase of the Anglo-French Second Hundred Years' War , spanning the period to In Dutch historiography, it is common to refer to the seven major wars between and as the Coalition Wars coalitieoorlogen , referring to the first two as the French Revolution Wars Franse Revolutieoorlogen.

Napoleon was, and remains, famous for his battlefield victories, and historians have spent enormous attention in analysing them. The ideal Napoleonic battle was to manipulate the enemy into an unfavourable position through manoeuvre and deception, force him to commit his main forces and reserve to the main battle and then undertake an enveloping attack with uncommitted or reserve troops on the flank or rear.

Such a surprise attack would either produce a devastating effect on morale, or force him to weaken his main battle line. Either way, the enemy's own impulsiveness began the process by which even a smaller French army could defeat the enemy's forces one by one. After , Napoleon's creation of a highly mobile, well-armed artillery force gave artillery usage increased tactical importance.

French Letters: Engaged in War

Napoleon, rather than relying on infantry to wear away the enemy's defences, could now use massed artillery as a spearhead to pound a break in the enemy's line. Once that was achieved he sent in infantry and cavalry. Britain was irritated by several French actions following the Treaty of Amiens. Bonaparte had annexed Piedmont and Elba , made himself President of the Italian Republic , a state in northern Italy that France had set up, and failed to evacuate Holland, as it had agreed to do in the treaty.

France continued to interfere with British trade despite peace having been made and complained about Britain harbouring certain individuals and not cracking down on the anti-French press. Malta had been captured by Britain during the war and was subject to a complex arrangement in the 10th article of the Treaty of Amiens where it was to be restored to the Knights of St.

John with a Neapolitan garrison and placed under the guarantee of third powers. The weakening of the Knights of St. John by the confiscation of their assets in France and Spain along with delays in obtaining guarantees prevented the British from evacuating it after three months as stipulated in the treaty. The Helvetic Republic had been set up by France when it invaded Switzerland in France had withdrawn its troops, but violent strife broke out against the government , which many Swiss saw as overly centralised. Bonaparte reoccupied the country in October and imposed a compromise settlement.

Although continental powers were unprepared to act, the British decided to send an agent to help the Swiss obtain supplies, and also ordered their military not to return Cape Colony to Holland as they had committed to do in the Treaty of Amiens. Swiss resistance collapsed before anything could be accomplished, and after a month Britain countermanded the orders not to restore Cape Colony. At the same time Russia finally joined the guarantee with regards to Malta. Concerned that there would be hostilities when Bonaparte found out that Cape Colony had been retained , the British began to procrastinate on the evacuation of Malta.

The British seized on this to demand satisfaction and security before evacuating Malta, which was a convenient stepping stone to Egypt. France disclaimed any desire to seize Egypt and asked what sort of satisfaction was required but the British were unable to give a response. In early March the Addington ministry received word that Cape Colony had been re-occupied by the British army in accordance with the orders which had subsequently been countermanded.

On 8 March they ordered military preparations to guard against possible French retaliation, and justified them by falsely claiming that it was only in response to French preparations and that they were conducting serious negotiations with France. In a few days it was known that Cape Colony had been surrendered in accordance with the counter-orders, but it was too late.

Bonaparte berated the British ambassador in front of spectators over the military preparations. The Addington ministry realised they would face an inquiry over their false reasons for the military preparations, and during April unsuccessfully attempted to secure the support of William Pitt the Younger to shield them from damage. They also offered to recognise French gains in Italy if they evacuated Switzerland and compensated the King of Sardinia for his territorial losses.

France offered to place Malta in the hands of Russia to satisfy British concerns, pull out of Holland when Malta was evacuated, and form a convention to give satisfaction to Britain on other issues. The British falsely denied that Russia had made an offer and their ambassador left Paris. Britain ended the uneasy truce created by the Treaty of Amiens when it declared war on France in May The British were increasingly angered by Napoleon's reordering of the international system in Western Europe, especially in Switzerland, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands. Kagan argues that Britain was especially alarmed by Napoleon's assertion of control over Switzerland.

The British felt insulted when Napoleon said it deserved no voice in European affairs even though King George was an elector of the Holy Roman Empire , and sought to restrict the London newspapers that were vilifying him. Britain had a sense of loss of control, as well as loss of markets, and was worried by Napoleon's possible threat to its overseas colonies. McLynn argues that Britain went to war in out of a "mixture of economic motives and national neuroses — an irrational anxiety about Napoleon's motives and intentions.

Napoleon was not ready for war and so this was the best time for Britain to stop them. Britain seized upon the Malta issue, refusing to follow the terms of the Treaty of Amiens and evacuate the island. The deeper British grievance was their perception that Napoleon was taking personal control of Europe, making the international system unstable, and forcing Britain to the sidelines. There was one serious attempt to negotiate peace with France during the war, made by Charles James Fox in The British wanted to retain their overseas conquests and have Hanover restored to George III in exchange for accepting French conquests on the continent.

Unlike its many coalition partners, Britain remained at war throughout the period of the Napoleonic Wars.

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Protected by naval supremacy in the words of Admiral Jervis to the House of Lords "I do not say, my Lords, that the French will not come. I say only they will not come by sea" , Britain maintained low-intensity land warfare on a global scale for over a decade. The British government paid out large sums of money to other European states, so that they could pay armies in the field against France.

These payments are colloquially known as the Golden Cavalry of St George.

French Letters: Engaged in War French Letters: Engaged in War
French Letters: Engaged in War French Letters: Engaged in War
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French Letters: Engaged in War French Letters: Engaged in War
French Letters: Engaged in War French Letters: Engaged in War

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